# 《coregraphs》

MINITAB User’s Guide 114-1 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE 14 Core Graphs ICore Graphs Overview, 14-2 ICommon Core Graph Graphics Options, 14-2 IPlots, 14-7 ITime Series Plots, 14-11 ICharts, 14-19 IHistograms, 14-29 IBoxplots, 14-36 IMatrix Plots, 14-43 IDraftsman Plots, 14-47 IContour Plots, 14-50 See also, IChapter 23, Specialty Graphs ICharacter graphs in Help GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 1 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Chapter 14Core Graphs Overview 14-2MINITAB User’s Guide 1 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE Core Graphs Overview You can use the core graph commands to quickly create graphs of various types: scatter plots, time series plots, charts, and more. But what sets core graphs apart from other types of MINITAB graphs is the ability to create multiple graphs at once (in different Graph windows or the same window) and to completely customize the appearance of each graph. These two abilities, collectively called graphics options, allow you to create a virtually unlimited variety of two-dimensional graphs. As well as the graphics options that they share with each other, most core graphs also have options that are unique to that graph. In this chapter, you will learn how to create basic graphs and use the options that are unique to each core graph. For each core graph, you will also see a brief description of the graphics options that are available to that graph. Common Core Graph Graphics Options Most graphics options are shared by all of the core graphs, and are described within their own chapters. For a definitive list of which options are available to which graph, see the description of each graph in this chapter, or look up the graphics option in the following chapters: Chapter and titleShows you how to… 15Core Graphs: Displaying Data use symbols, connection lines, bars, and other data display elements to represent data points. 16Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs show multiple relationships between variables and subgroups within variables. The relationships can be displayed on one graph, on multiple graphs in different Graph windows, on multiple graphs overlaid in the same Graph window, or on multiple graphs placed in different areas of one Graph window. 17Core Graphs: Annotating add text and graphical objects to graphs, such as titles, footnotes, lines, and polygons. 18Core Graphs: Customizing the Frame customize the axes, ticks, and other frame elements that surround a graph. 19Core Graphs: Controlling Regions change the properties of the four different regions that make up a Graph window, including sizing, background colors, and fill patterns. GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 2 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Common Core Graph Graphics OptionsCore Graphs MINITAB User’s Guide 114-3 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE You access most of the graphics options from the main dialog box of each core graph. All core graphs have a similar dialog box structure. For an overview of this structure, see Accessing graphics options from core graph dialog boxes on page 14-6. Displaying the data You can alter the way your data appear on the graph. You can choose one or more data display elements, then change the attributes for each element. Chapter 15, Core Graphs: Displaying Data, discusses these options in detail, but here is an overview of the data display elements that are available. ElementDefinitionExampleAttributes SymbolsDots, circles, squares, etc., that appear for each point on the graph type, color, and size of symbols Connection linesLines that connect points Itype, color, size of lines Istraight or steplike lines Projection linesLines that extend from each point to an axis or base point Iline type, color, and size Ibase location for each projection Idirection of the projection (to the x- or y-axis) AreasFilled areas under points Itype and color of fills Itype, color, and size of edge lines Ibase location for each point Iextension of areas in the x- or y-direction Istraight or steplike edge lines GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 3 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Chapter 14Common Core Graph Graphics Options 14-4MINITAB User’s Guide 1 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE Groups and multiple graphs Most often you will generate one graph at a time. However, the core graph commands also allow you to create many graphs at once, or elegantly display multiple relationships on one page. For details, see Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs. You can: Idisplay data elements differently for each group, or for each point, in a graph. Igenerate multiple graphs, each in its own Graph window, from one dialog box. Graphs can have different scales, or have the same scale. Ioverlay several graphs, or create a layout of several graphs, on one page—the graph types can be different. Annotating the graph You can add text and graphical objects to your graph. See Chapter 17, Core Graphs: Annotating. You can: Icreate titles and footnotes Iadd data labels Iplace text anywhere on the graph Idraw symbols, lines, or polygons anywhere on the graph Bars Bars that represent categories (charts and histograms only) Itype and color of fills Itype, color, and size of edge lines Ibase location for each point Iextension of bars in the x- or y-direction LOWESS linesSmoothed points connected with lines LOWESS stands for LOcally-WEighted Scatter plot Smoother. Itype, color, and size of lines Idegree of smoothness as determined by the f value Iamount of influence of outliers on the smoothed values ElementDefinitionExampleAttributes GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 4 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Common Core Graph Graphics OptionsCore Graphs MINITAB User’s Guide 114-5 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE Customizing the graph frame You can customize the axes, ticks, and other elements that border the data, as well as the elements that span the borders of a graph, such as reference lines and grid lines. See Chapter 18, Core Graphs: Customizing the Frame. You can Iredefine the minimum and maximum values of the scales Icustomize the axis line appearance, length, and labels Icustomize tick line appearance, location, and labels Iadd grid lines Iadd reference lines and labels to the graph Isuppress all the frame elements at once Controlling regions Each graph window contains one page, or page region. Each page can contain three other types of regions: figure regions (one for each graph on the page); data regions (one inside each figure region); and, if you use groups or multiple graphs on one page, a legend region. For details, see Chapter 19, Core Graphs: Controlling Regions. You can Ichange the location, size, and appearance of each region Icustomize the appearance of text within the legend region Ispecify the aspect ratio, or shape, of a page region The page region contains all three graphs. Each graph is enclosed by a figure region, shown here with dashed lines. The legend region contains the legend. The data region includes all the data points within the frame. GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 5 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Chapter 14Common Core Graph Graphics Options 14-6MINITAB User’s Guide 1 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE Accessing graphics options from core graph dialog boxes You access most of these options from the main dialog box of each core graph. All core graphs use a similar dialog box structure. For example, here is the main dialog box for plots (Graph ? Plot): This chapter will not go into detail on how to use these dialog box items, though you will see some of the items used in simple core graphs, examples, and tips. For full details, see the dialog item chapter locations in the following chart: In the Graph variables table, create one graph or multiple graphs at once. Determine how your data points will be displayed in the Data display table. Click Edit Attributes to change the appearance of a Data display element. Use the Annotation, Frame, and Regions pop-up menus to access many other graphics options. Dialog box itemUsed for…See. Graph variables table: Row for Graph 1generating one grapheach core graph in this chapter Rows for Graph 2–100generating multiple graphsChapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs Data display table: Display drop-down menuchoosing one or more Data display elements Chapter 15, Core Graphs: Displaying Data For each ? Graphcontrolling how the corresponding data display element will appear on multiple graphs Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs For each ? Groupmaking the corresponding data display element appear differently for each group in a grouping variable Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 6 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM PlotsCore Graphs MINITAB User’s Guide 114-7 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE Plots A plot displays points at paired coordinates from two variables: one variable provides the coordinates for the vertical y-axis, and one variable provides the coordinates for the horizontal x-axis. The default form of a plot is a scatter plot, which displays symbols for those data points. For each ? Pointmaking symbols or projection lines appear differently for each data point in the graph Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs Grouping variablesspecifying which column holds the grouping variable—used only when For each is set to Group Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs Edit Attributes buttonchanging the attributes of the currently selected item in the Data display table Chapter 15, Core Graphs: Displaying Data Annotation pop-up menuadding text and graphical objects to the graph Chapter 17, Core Graphs: Annotating Frame pop-up menuIcustomizing the axes, ticks, and other frame elements that surround a graph Chapter 18, Core Graphs: Customizing the Frame Ioverlaying multiple graphs on the same page Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs Regions pop-up menuIcontrolling the appearance of areas of a graph Chapter 19, Core Graphs: Controlling Regions Isetting the size and position of the Figure region for placing multiple graphs on one page Chapter 16, Core Graphs: Groups and Multiple Graphs Dialog box itemUsed for…See. GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 7 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Chapter 14Plots 14-8MINITAB User’s Guide 1 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE If you change the data display elements of a plot from the default symbols, you can create area plots, line plots, and smoothed line plots. You can also create combination plots that use multiple data display elements, such as symbols and lines together: Data Provide one column for the y-axis, and one column for the x-axis. Columns can be numeric or date/time, but must be of equal length. MINITAB automatically omits missing values from graphs. If you want to generate multiple graphs at once, you need a y-axis column and an x-axis column for each graph. Area plotLine plotCombination scatter/line plot Default plot: a scatter plot NoteWhen used in the Plot command, date/time variables reflect the actual times measurements were taken, and thus can be used to plot unequally-spaced time series. When used in the Time Series Plot command, however, date/time variables can be used only as stamps for equally-spaced time series. NoteAs with most graphs, the tick labels for date/time variables appear on the plot in the same format as they appear in the date/time column in the Data window. GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 8 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM PlotsCore Graphs MINITAB User’s Guide 114-9 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE hTo create a plot 1Choose Graph ? Plot. 2Enter a column in row 1 of Y and a column in row 1 of X. 3If you like, use any of the options below, then click OK. Options Plot dialog box The Plot dialog box includes the typical core graph dialog box controls. You can create multiple graphs and control a wide variety of graphics options. The following table outlines each of the dialog box features and indicates which chapter covers the feature in more detail: Data display Groups and multiple graphsAnnotationFrameRegions Symbols Connection lines Projection lines Areas LOWESS lines Display data for each group Multiple graphs at once Same scales across graphs Overlaying graphs Laying out graphs on the same page Titles Footnotes Text Lines Polygons Markers Data labels Axes Ticks Grids Reference lines Change the scale Suppressing frame elements Figure Data Legend Aspect ratio of a page Chapter 15Chapter 16Chapter 17Chapter 18Chapter 19 GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 9 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Chapter 14Plots 14-10MINITAB User’s Guide 1 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QREFUGUIDE 2INDEXCONTENTSHOW TO USE Options subdialog box IAdd Jitter. Add “jitter” to the display of data points so that you can see overlapping points. See Adding jitter to overlapping points below. ITransform the x- or y-axis. You can perform a log scale transformation. See Help in your MINITAB application for details. ITranspose the x- and y-axes. Transposing the axes switches the x-axis with the y-axis, so that the x-axis is vertical and the y-axis is horizontal. Transposing does not change the type or name of the axis: the x-axis remains the x-axis whether it is horizontal or vertical, just as the y-axis remains the y-axis whether it is horizontal or vertical. Adding jitter to overlapping points You can add jitter to randomly offset points, according to the values in the offset distance fields, so that you can see overlapping points. The average offset distance can be set for the x- and y-directions by entering values ranging from 0 to 1. The default value is 0.025. A larger value gives a larger average offset distance. This is an average; the actual distance is pseudo-randomly generated for each plot. The values are fractions of the range of data in each direction. Values are usually quite small to minimize distortion. You can stretch points out in just one direction by setting one direction to 0 and the other direction to a larger value. hTo add jitter 1From the main graph dialog box, click Options. 2Check Add Jitter to Direction. 3Optionally, change the average offset distance (the default value of 0.025 will otherwise take precedence). In X and/or Y, enter a number ranging from 0 to 1. GRCOREGR.MK5 Page 10 Thursday, December 9, 1999 2:34 PM Time Series PlotsCore Graphs MINITAB User’s Guide 114-11 MEET MTBUGUIDE 1SC QRE